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|Заглавие: Paraneoplastic Syndrome Чет Авг 18, 2011 1:14 am|| |
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Paraneoplastic syndrome is not a particular disease or disorder, but a group of symptoms experienced by cancer patients. To be more specific, it is a group of rare disorders, diseases or symptoms, that are found in people with cancerous tumors (neoplasm). It is not necessary that such symptoms occur in the same location as that of the tumor. So, paraneoplastic syndrome can affect any organ or bodily system. It is not the mere presence of the cancer cells in a particular area that causes such symptoms or diseases, but, it can be said that the symptoms develop as a result of the bodily reactions caused by the cancer cells. Read on to know more about paraneoplastic syndrome.
What is Paraneoplastic Syndrome?
As mentioned above, it is a set of symptoms, diseases or disorders experienced by cancer patients. Let us start with an example. In case of lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, etc., the patient may develop inappropriate ADH secretion, which is an anti diuretic hormone released by the pituitary gland. This hormone affects the production of dilute urine in the body and so, it is released by the body, only when it is needed. But, in some cancer patients, inappropriate ADH secretion happens and this affects the ability to put out dilute urine, causing symptoms, like, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, confusion, and convulsions. This inappropriate ADH secretion is considered as one of the symptoms that constitute paraneoplastic syndrome. While this inappropriate ADH secretion does not happen in normal persons, in case of cancer patients, it is due to the reactions that take place in the body, as a result of the presence of cancer cells.
In short, paraneoplastic syndrome is a set of symptoms or diseases, which develop in cancer patients. It is contended that this syndrome in cancer patients is caused either by the action of chemicals released by the cancer cells or by the cancer-fighting antibodies that mistakenly attack normal cells. There are many different paraneoplastic syndrome symptoms and such symptoms may vary from one cancer patient to another. Paraneoplastic syndrome is commonly seen in middle-aged and older cancer patients. It is estimated that around 20% of cancer patients develop such symptoms. According to recent researches, paraneoplastic syndrome is mainly associated with certain types of cancer, like, lung cancer, renal carcinoma, leukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, lymphoma, neural cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, etc. Scroll down to know more about paraneoplastic syndrome symptoms.
Paraneoplastic Syndrome Symptoms
Now, you know that cancer patients may develop some symptoms, diseases or disorders, which are collectively termed as paraneoplastic syndrome. These symptoms will be absent during the initial stages, but, develop with the growth of cancer. It may affect any organ or bodily system, producing a variety of symptoms, which are based on the function of that organ or system, which is affected. In general, paraneoplastic syndrome symptoms include night sweats, anorexia (eating disorder) and cachexia (loss of weight, fatigue, etc.). Other symptoms are categorized into four categories as per the system/organ, which is affected by cancer. These categories are endocrine, neurological, mucocutaneous and hematological. While the endocrine category includes hypercalcemia, hypoglycemia, carcinoid syndrome, cushing syndrome, polycythemia, etc., neurological class has encephalomyelitis, brainstem encephalitis, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, polymyositis, etc. The third category - mucocutaneous involves, acanthosis nigricans, pyoderma gangrenosum, dermatomyositis, Sweet's syndrome, necrolytic migratory erythema and many other problems. Diseases/disorders, like, polycythemia, anemia, granulocytosis, nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, etc., belong to the hematological category. Among them, the most devastating ones are found to be the neurological disorders, which are mostly seen in breast cancer, ovarian cancer and lung cancer patients. The above said categories contains some of the diseases and disorders, which can develop in cancer patients and the symptoms vary with the disease.
Now you have a basic idea about paraneoplastic syndrome, its causes and symptoms. Paraneoplastic syndrome treatment is mainly aimed at the underlying cancer through methods, like, radiation, chemotherapy and surgery. Sometimes, drugs are administered to cancer patients, in order to reduce the autoimmune response. The symptoms associated with some types of paraneoplastic disorders can be alleviated with plasmapheresis, a process that cleanses antibodies from the blood. However, it is very important for those patients, who are suffering from paraneoplastic syndrome to inform the doctor and get it diagnosed at the earliest.
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|he is one of them|
|Пет Авг 19, 2011 12:03 am by peggy1258|
|McCoist told the club's official website: "We're absolutely thrilled to get Alejandro in at last. We've been wanting to get a few players in and he is one of them.|
"I have absolutely no doubt he will be a great asset to us and he is a player we have been looking at for a while.
"I'm just so pleased the clubs were able to agree terms and we can get him to join the squad now.
|The USA international |
|Пет Авг 19, 2011 12:03 am by peggy1258|
|Rangers have confirmed the signing of midfielder Alejandro Bedoya on a three-year contract from Swedish side Orebro.|
The USA international had already signed a pre-contract agreement with the Glaswegian outfit and was due to join the squad after completion of the Swedish domestic season in December.
Rangers, however, have successfully re-negotiated the deal, which will allow the 24-year-old to …
|Kilmarnock sign Panikvar|
|Пет Авг 19, 2011 12:02 am by peggy1258|
|Kilmarnock have signed midfielder Leon Panikvar on a two-year contract following a successful trail.|
Kenny Shiels' side made the announcement on their official website but did not disclose any more details about the deal with the 28-year-old from Slovenia.
"Kilmarnock are delighted to announce new signing Leon Panikvar," read the statement.
"Leon has been rewarded with a …
| haven't seen it through|
|Чет Авг 18, 2011 11:17 am by peggy1258|
|They remain unbeaten but boss Kenny Jackett was frustrated at seeing them blow a two-goal lead for the second time this term.|
"It's disappointing because we looked in a strong position and had a number of chances to put the game away," he said.
"Their keeper made a couple of good saves, and at 2-1 up he's touched one onto the post, and they've gone down the other end and scored.
|We've shown our character again|
|Чет Авг 18, 2011 11:16 am by peggy1258|
|And they appeared dead and buried when Hameur Bouazza collected Darius Henderson's pass and doubled their advantage after the break.|
But Taylor came off the bench in the 55th minute, and a quarter of an hour later he set up Lee Frecklington to pull one back.
And moments after Trotter had hit a post for the Lions, Taylor completed the comeback with a low 20-yard strike.
"We've shown our …
|Peterborough a 2-2 draw against Millwall.|
|Чет Авг 18, 2011 11:15 am by peggy1258|
|Darren Ferguson admitted he had taken a gamble signing Paul Taylor after he earned Peterborough a 2-2 draw against Millwall.|
The striker was handed a six-month FA ban three years ago while playing for Chester for failing a drugs test but is now showing signs of maturity.
Ferguson signed the 23-year-old from Anderlecht at the end of last season and was rewarded with Taylor's first goal for Posh …
|Harry concedes Euro mission|
|Чет Авг 18, 2011 10:09 am by peggy1258|
|Harry Redknapp admits Tottenham must strengthen if they are to achieve his aim of qualifying for the UEFA Champions League again.|
The Spurs boss predicts a three-horse race for the title and likewise for fourth spot, the last position available from which to qualify for Europe's premier club competition.
Redknapp believes Manchester United, Chelsea and Manchester City are virtually assured a …
|Чет Авг 18, 2011 10:09 am by peggy1258|
|He added the club have got plenty of scouts all over the world, saying: "And we are not frightened to spend money when we think it's right.|
"Our fans have more reasons to be proud of this club - the values here, the way the club is run, what the club is built (upon) - than being angry with the club.
"Of course we want to deliver trophies, of course we want to win trophies, who …
|Wenger - I'd spend £40m|
|Чет Авг 18, 2011 10:08 am by peggy1258|
|Arsenal boss Arsene Wenger has claimed he would spend £40million on bringing players to the Emirates.|
The French tactician is seen by some as being too cautious in the transfer market amid rivals such as Manchester City and Chelsea splashing the cash to bolster their squads.
But Wenger has defended his dealings, claiming he would be happy to spend £40m if the right players came along.
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